10 Hypothetical Astronomical Objects That Could Actually Exist

Dyson Sphere

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The concept of a Dyson sphere was first introduced by Freeman Dyson, a physicist and astronomer who explored the idea through a thought experiment. He imagined a solar system–sized solar power collector. He believed a civilization could enclose its star in a cloud of satellite-type objects (or a “shell” or “ring of matter” in Dyson’s words) in order to beam 100 percent of the star’s radiation to a planet. Dyson created this thought experiment as a way to identify possible alien life in the universe. If we were to find a Dyson sphere, it could indicate the presence of a highly advanced alien civilization.

Here’s a cool fact: If we had the technology to create a Dyson sphere around the Sun, we would generate 384 yottawatts of energy, aka the total power output of the Sun. (Yotta- is the largest decimal unit prefix. It is equal to ten to the 24th power, or one septillion, or one million million million million.)

Black Dwarf

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Black dwarf—the name itself does not invoke sci-fi vibes as “zombie star” does. However, the concept behind a black dwarf is equally as interesting as all the other hypothetical objects on this list. So far, astronomers have found white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, and red dwarfs. However, black dwarfs have never been seen and are purely theoretical. Astronomers believe they could be formed from white dwarfs that have cooled for a sufficiently long time, to the point where their temperature matches the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The CMB is the radiation left over from the Big Bang that fills up the entire universe. It currently has an average temperature of 2.7 Kelvin.

These black dwarfs are thought to be invisible, since their temperature is so low and they have no internal source of energy. Theoretically, if a 5-Kelvin white dwarf was to turn into a black dwarf, it would take 1015 years.Therefore, the universe is still too young to have created any black dwarfs!

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